The Crossover: Diasporic and Intercultural Film and Media

With multiculturalism reaching an all time high, it is only fitting that film and media be intercultural.
People leave their home countries for many different reasons; reasons such as war, marriage, work, etc. But when leaving their homelands, these people tend to lose touch with most things relating to their country, such as what is now happening in the news.
News channels such as SBS have made it easier for people to stay connected and up-to-date with their home countries without the stress and worry of having to learn a complete new language. SBS have made this possible by allowing people to choose from seventy four different languages which they would like to listen to the broadcast in.

Intercultural Film
Intercultural film is characterised by experimental styles that attempt to represent the experience of living between two or more cultural regimes of knowledge, or living as a minority in the still majority white, Euro-American West.” – (Laura Marks, 2000)

Intercultural cinema is displayed globally in order to introduce an intercultural connection between the audiences viewing and the cultural characters represented in the film. Intercultural films exposes different people with different backgrounds to a world of knowledge and understanding about different cultures through the use of a popular medium.

Image: https://s3.amazonaws.com/00D200000000DRKEA2/a2n-bih_opportunity__c/a2ND0000001bUFFMA2/arranged_v1.jpg
Author Laura Marks argues that film “is not the property of any single culture, but mediates in at least two directions. It accounts for the encounter between different cultural organisations of knowledge, which is one of the sources of intercultural cinema’s synthesis of new forms of expression and new kinds of knowledge“.

  • t.r

 

References:

 

What is Nollywood?

‘Nollywood’ is Nigerian cinema.

Nigerian cinema dates back as early as the 19th century in the form of the kinetoscope and has developed over the years. The first Nigerian cinema was the work of Geoffrey Barkas with his 1926 film ‘Palaver‘.
More recent examples of Nigerian film include the 2013 drama film ‘Half of A Yellow Sun‘ by Biyi Bandele, and the 2009 thriller ‘The Figurine‘ by Kunle Afolayan.

In the late 1960’s to 1970’s the world of film expanded in Nigeria, therefore resulting in an increase in Nigerian content in theatres.
The Nigerian film culture and industry experienced two major booms – one in 1973 through to 1978due to the oil boom, and another in the 1990’s after the decline of the Golden Era. With a continuing growth in Nigerian cinema, it quickly became “the second largest film industry in the world in terms of the number of annual film productions” in the 2000’s.

It is argued that the term ‘Nollywood’ is overly used and that there is no clear definition of how Nigerian a film must be in order to fit under the ‘Nollywood’ category. This argument arose after the term was also being used for Nigerian/African diaspora films.

With such growth in the Nigerian film industry, an impressive $590 million is generated annually, therefore placing Nollywood just second to India’s Bollywood; and with such growth continuing, it is expected that up to one million jobs could be created in the near future.

Image: http://one-org.s3.amazonaws.com/us/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Nollywood.jpg

 

 

 

 

Globalisation

Horse and carriage to Jeep and Alfa Romeo.

Radio to television.

Written letters to typed texts.

To think that we have gone from all being on slightly the same page and having similar ideas, to different countries advancing quicker than others.
Some scholars believe that the origins of globalisation are to be placed in modern times, whilst others place its origin in the time of the European Age of Discovery.

Globalisation is frequently subdivided into 3 areas – economic globalisation, cultural globalisation, and political globalisation.

So what do these 3 areas consist of?
Economic globalisation: “this essentially incorporates the globalisation of production and finance, markets and technology, organizational regimes and institutions, corporations and labour.”

Cultural Globalisation: “this incorporates the transferal of ideas, meanings and values.”

Political Globalisation: “this refers to the growth of the worldwide political system, both in size and complexity.”

 

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) believe that there are four fundamental aspects of globalisation, this being trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, as well as the dissemination of knowledge.

Advances in technology have “generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.” Advances such as television, mobile phones and the internet have all assisted in the growth of the economy.
The globalisation of industries has played a large role in advancing the mediums we use today.

 

  • t.r

 

 

Image: http://www.sociologydiscussion.com/globalisation/globalisation-social-dimensions-of-globalisation-explained/977

 

The Top Dogs

I’m sure that just like myself, media plays a large role in a lot of other people’s lives – especially social media! But when we fire up our phones and click on that ‘Facebook’ app do we ever stop to think of what exactly we’re agreeing to, or where our information is flying off to, or who is running the application? I know that I don’t; but maybe we should. We come across media everywhere we go and throughout almost all of our daily tasks; but who is in charge of the media which is being almost thrown in our face? What most of us are unaware of is that most media companies are actually owned by the same person. Whilst Mark Zuckerberg’s huge success story is focused on his creation of the social media site ‘Facebook’ he also owns/runs WordPress, the very site in which I am blogging on. Another thing we are completely unaware of is the privacy of our information on media sites. I mean sure it’s great to share your location with all your fellow Facebook fiends, but where else do you think that information is going? And where exactly is it being stored? This brings up the question of whether the media is there to be utilized by consumers or whether it is purely there to serve the interests of those in power.

Something else many are aware of is media’s use of Facial Recognition. The word facial recognition sounds pretty cool right? Well it’s not! It’s actually kind of creepy and invasive. The fact that media sites know what we look like and can recognize us just from one uploaded picture is terrifying. It also makes me wonder what/who else is receiving my facial recognition and what is being done with this information. With the use of propaganda by owners of media sites, many people are being thrown into the media pool and using media more and more often; whether it be social media or even just a TV broadcast. Even though there is a decline in diversity of media ownership, the power that the owners of media companies have is astounding and a little worrying as we are putting so much of our information and our personal lives into their hands and not knowing what they are doing with it, or where it is going. In a way we are just blindly giving permission for our information to be aired.

  • t.r

 

Relevant video: “5 Ways Facebook Abuses Your Privacy”

Semiotics

When first coming across this image with my tutorial group I started questioning what its purpose was. I wondered whether or not its focus was air pollution, deforestation, or the effects smoking has on the human body as well as the environment – but then I thought, “Why can’t its focus be all of the above?” With closer inspection I began to realise that the ‘signified’ is completely open for interpretation as there are many different mental concepts in which could be had.
When staring at this advertisement I was actually really intrigued as to how this one image (the signifier) can have a different impact on many different people, as well as how this one image can mean (the signified) so many different things to others. I could easily type an entire post on how this image is completely about deforestation and its impacts on all living organisms, which was my first connotation – but would this statement be correct? Would my idea of the concept being conveyed be the same for others? No, it wouldn’t; because the signifier can have many different concepts than just the one indicated by myself.
When looking at this image I found it quite difficult to decipher the denotation of the image yet found myself overflowing with connotations – but I now realise that the image denotes the consequences that come hand in hand with deforestation.
I struggled to favour one idea over the others, which just goes to prove that all these different ideas and concepts can still be conflicted within even just one person, and that not one idea is more right than the others. The great thing I found with similar images is that there is never just one idea behind an image or text and that they are largely open for interpretation.
After many hours of internal conflict I’d decided that my connotation of the image is the consequences had on all living things, humans and animals in particular, when deforestation is put in place; but as I said before, the fantastic thing about semiotics is that everything is open for interpretation.
I guess what I took from the lecture/tutorial is that not everything has one correct idea/meaning behind it, and everyone’s ideas will be different.

When looking further into the ‘signifier’ and ‘signified’ I came across a few great sites on the different ideas of ‘signs’ (semiotics)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sign_%28semiotics%29
http://changingminds.org/explanations/critical_theory/concepts/signifier_signified.htm

  • t.r

 

Image from: http://persuasion-and-influence.blogspot.com.au/2014/01/the-earths-lungs.html

Is Media To Blame?

Media – when hearing this word we think of television shows, video games, news broadcasts, social media applications such as Facebook, Twitter, etc., but do we ever stop to think of the positive and negative effects in which it has on its audience? Media has been said to be both detrimental and beneficial. As the years have progressed as has the media around us; video games and social media applications progressing the most. But are these media progressions a good or bad thing? Younger ages are playing ‘R’ rated video games with sex and violence scenes, and teens are posting unclad photos on social media sites. According to George Gerbner violence on screens cultivate violence in society; so in other words any young child/uneducated person/youth (the “victims), playing violent video games or watching horror films are going to repeat these acts of violence and acts of sexuality. But this can’t always be the case! Whilst I agree that the advance in media can have quite an effect on the violence some people act out, I don’t believe it possesses that power over all people – leaving us to question people and their actions rather than media. Cyber bullying is a good example of a media tool being used for bad rather than being used for good. A good example of this is an application such as Facebook, which acts to serve as a communication implement, being used to bully and harass; again leaving us to question whether the person utilizing the media should be at fault rather than the media itself.

Media can also prove to be a tool and a stimulant for people – especially young children and youths. Certain TV programs and computer applications for example, are used to educate whilst entertaining at the same time. These programs can assist with literacy skills, social skills, numeracy skills, creativity, etc.
Social media can also be used conveniently without negative impacts. Social media assists people on a daily basis, whether that be with communication, news updates, or just a social vibe. Media can be a good thing if the people behind it/utilizing it are good too!

Before looking further into the aspects of media and everything that media contains, I too questioned its positive outcomes – but now I realize that we shouldn’t just blame media for all the negative impacts it has, but we should look further in to the people behind it.

 

  • t.r

Image: http://yourekavach.com/blog/parenting/6-signs-your-child-is-a-victim-of-cyberbullying/

Relevant website: http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/2013/may-june-13/social-anxiety-in-the-age-of-social-networks.html

 

The Death Of Procrastination

Procrastination.
It has always been one of my many strong suits. Whether it be working on assignments or attempting, and quite often failing, to have some form of a social life. I have never been one to eagerly jump at something without hesitation. It quite often takes me some time to find the motivation to complete a task. At first I truly believed that I was doomed and imprisoned in the constants of procrastination; that was until I started University. Once starting University the incentive began flowing. Studying a Double degree in Journalism and Communication & Media Studies sparked some form of fascination within me. Writing has always been a highly adored divertissement for me, and being able to study a degree in which encourages writing, aided with my above mentioned condition; procrastination.

An early admiration of writing and an overly passionate English teacher promoted my decisions in pursuing two English based degrees at University. Thus resulting in me now sitting here struggling to put my ideas/thoughts into words and into a blog post.

Blogging.
What ‘misunderstood’ teenager hasn’t blogged at least once in their life? Whether it be in regards to hating the world or an eternal love for pizza.

index

Blogging seems to come so naturally to young teens. Just as procrastination seems to come so easily to me. But surely I’m not the only legendary procrastinator to roam the Earth. I’m sure there are plenty of my unmotivated brothers and sisters building up the motivation to conquer the daily tasks that are at hand.

Perhaps this year will be a different story however.
Perhaps my stupendous procrastinating skills will be replaced with those of incentive.
Perhaps my procrastination will fade into a beautiful form of impulse to succeed in all given tasks.
Perhaps my famous use of the word procrastination will cover up the concept that I’m probably just a really lazy and unorganized person who diagnoses themselves with procrastination in order to feel a little safer about their harrowing predicament.
Perhaps this will be the year that I find something that I won’t feel the need to avoid or push to the side.

Here’s to hoping that my chosen degrees facilitate in the processes of eliminating all forms of procrastination that I find to be confined in myself and everything I attempt to attempt completing.
Here’s to the end of pushing everything off to the side.
Here’s to the end of our procrastinating days.

  • t.r

 

Image: https://01.img.society6.com/society6/img/R76_FK-d1avzK8cam2kCS5gWwC0/w_700/artwork/~artwork/s6-0023/a/9086474_11638426/~~/you-have-a-pizza-my-heart-prints.jpg